I understand that the X-chromosome is responsible for certain disorders, like red-green colorblindness; but besides disorders, what do the genes on the X-chromosome determine?
Here is the list! There are about 900 protein coding genes and about 500 non-coding transcribed sequences. It is not going to be feasible to explain you the function of every single one of those genes. Your question is hence too broad.
You will find here on wikipedia a small subset of those ~900 genes.
If your question was
Are all genes that are on the X chromosome related to sex?
Then, the answer is "no". Most of them have nothing to do with gender specific traits.
I would like to start the answer by mentioning that I was fortunate to attend a lecture by Jenny Graves, a scientist working on X chromosomes recently.
In her lecture she mentioned the genes on X-chromosomes as "brain and balls" genes. As Remi.b has already added a list you can go through it to find a few of these genes. I am highlighting a few of them as follows:-
- Androgen receptor (AR) - Required for prostrate formation in males. Mutations may lead to muscular degeneration and loss of motor control (Kennedy's syndrome).
- AIFM1 - An inhibitor of apoptosis. Mutations may lead to neurodegenerative conditions like Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 4.
- MeCP2 - Heterozygous female MeCP2 mutants suffer from Rett Syndrome. It is almost exclusively seen in females because male mutant embryos die during pregnancy.
- BEX1, BEX2 and BEX4 - Brain-expressed X-linked (BEX) proteins
Also regarding sex determination - the mammalian XY sex determination is Y centered i.e. the SRY gene on the Y chromosome is the gene responsible for determining maleness. Interestingly some species not using the XY system have evolved female specific sex determination genes. I will add relevant citations when I have time.