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My professor told us that there are about a million different B cells based on their surface receptor.

I have read that we have about 30000 genes in all. Since receptors are proteins how do these 30000 genes make such a large number of receptors? I read about something called alternative splicing. Is this the mechanism behind this?

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Alternate spicing of mRNA is a real phenomenon, but it's not the source of immune cell receptor diversity. The DNA of immune cells is rearranged in a slightly random manner, to make a receptor with a random sequence in the variable portion of the receptor. As Armatus already said, the process is VDJ recombination. Here is a link to a textbook on NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27113/

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Yes - in short, splicing enables one gene to be 'read' in multiple different ways. Imagine you have a set of letters; you can make one long word out of them, or cut some words out to make a shorter, different word. The same logic applies to gene expression, in that one gene could be made to code for a variety of different proteins (in this example, surface receptors).

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