Quoting Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton and Hall, 2016, page 647,
...the functional components of the retina, which are arranged in layers from the outside to the inside as follows:
(1) pigmented layer, (2) layer of rods and cones projecting to the pigment, (3) outer nuclear layer containing the cell bodies of the rods and cones, (4) outer plexiform layer, (5) inner nuclear layer, (6) inner plexiform layer, (7) ganglionic layer, (8) layer of optic nerve fibers, and (9) inner limiting membrane.
After light passes through the lens system of the eye and then through the vitreous humor, it enters the retina from the inside of the eye (see Figure 51-1); that is, it passes first through the ganglion cells and then through the plexiform and nuclear layers before it finally reaches the layer of rods and cones located all the way on the outer edge of the retina. This distance is a thickness of several hundred micrometers; visual acuity is decreased by this passage through such nonhomogeneous tissue. However, in the central foveal region of the retina, as discussed subsequently, the inside layers are pulled aside to decrease this loss of acuity.
I have attached Figure 51-1 for people who would like to see it.
My questions are: How does light travel to the inner parts of the retina first even when there are so many impeding layers preceding it? Why does it not stimulate the photoreceptors first? What is the pathway of the light after it travels to the the innermost retinal layer? Are the photoreceptors the first to be stimulated by the light?
As can be understood, I am quite confused, so if the framing of any question is reflective of erroneous understanding, kindly let me know. All help appreciated.