I saw many of these plants while hiking on a hill facing the ocean in northern Taiwan. I've included a snapshot of a nearby part of the same trail to show it's rugged, wet, green, and rocky, and another photo of some what looks to be the same kind of plant without these things, and one that has a reddish coloring.
Any idea what these little (~10 mm long) "leaf-shaped" brown/orangish things are, growing from points along two regular rows of bumps that are repeated everywhere? Is this reproduction, if so how does it work?
Also curious, any thoughts on what kind of plant to call this? I don't need a species identification necessarily, but is it a kind of fern?
below: Additional photos, click for full size.