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Consider we have a monkey zygote (i.e. single cell just fused) and a tiger zygote. If we extract the nucleus of monkey zygote and place it into tiger zygote where nucleus of tiger zygote is already removed. Is there any chance of zygote to survive and finally turn into a monkey offspring ? I tried Google for any such experiment ever conducted but seems like biology is googol to Google, no close result at all.

For more clarity it can even be considered all chromosomes transferred instead of nucleus.

As far as I think this could be possible as all 20 amino heads must be present in zygotes of both the mammals and thus synthesizing protein should not be a problem. However I can't say anything about their respective immune system response.

This question came to my mind considering Darwin hypothesis/theory(interpret as you wish) of evolution, where even if some mutation changes the DNA sequence how much chances are there for a completely new organism if cells don't support growth natively.

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Unfortunately the answer is no. Similar experiments of cross species nuclear transplants into enucleated oocytes have been attempted. Rat nuclear transfer into activated denucleated mice oocytes, rabbit oocytes etc.

The primary stumbling block appears to be incompatibility between mitochondria proteins derived from the donor nucleus and proteins derived from the host mitochondria. Mitochrondria proteins are encoded from two DNA sources, the genome within the nucleus and the genome within the mitochondria. While mammalian mitochondria proteins are very similar, there are differences. These small differences between species appears to be enough to kill a developing embryo if there is a miss match.

Attempts have been made to replace both host nucleus and host mitochondria. However complete replacement of host mitochondria has not been successful. Partial replacement of host mitochondria (mouse oocyte as host and rat nucleus with rat mitochondria as donor), appears to marginally prolong the life span of embryo. But death is still the outcome.

PS: nuclear transfer between subspecies and very closely related species does produce viable clone. Coyote (Canis latrans) using dog (Canis lupus familiaris) oocytes. (Bos gaurus) adult nucleus donor cells and bovine (Bos taurus). My guess is that if a hybrid is possible between the two species, nuclear transplant between the two species should be possible

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  • $\begingroup$ Can you provide me some pointer to any such research. google sending to animal cloning even when I use words cross species nuclear transplants. $\endgroup$ – Avezan Jun 8 '18 at 12:10
  • $\begingroup$ ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21556135 Here is a started article. $\endgroup$ – JayCkat Jun 8 '18 at 13:59
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The fertilized tiger ovum probably has some tiger mRNA in its cytoplasm already, those are not going to interact properly with the monkey DNA. That is going to be a problem long before there is any development of the immune system.

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  • $\begingroup$ Doesn't mRNA has same structure across multiple eukaryotic cells? I don't know specific exception but heard there are exceptions. $\endgroup$ – Avezan Jun 7 '18 at 22:51
  • $\begingroup$ "Structure" isn't enough. Lots of genes are controlled by mRNA binding to matching sequences upstream. If those sequences don't match well enough, the cells won't develop correctly. $\endgroup$ – swbarnes2 Jun 7 '18 at 23:35

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