Regarding humans it is said that most psychological effects caused in men by testosterone are caused in women by estrogens. There are many studies on that, particularly regarding temporary shifts of hormone levels: Ovulatory shift hypothesis. Also, there are some studies (and possibly controversial) claiming such differences between individuals.

But this made me think if there are any similar physiological diffences caused by estrogens. It's known that in males testosterone affects muscular growth, which means higher testosterone levels will make it easier to gain muscular weight. So, I ask if higher estrogen levels in females affect muscular growth.

While this question is regarding humans, studies about other primates also can be acceptable.


1 Answer 1


The article named "Estrogen replacement and skeletal muscle: mechanisms and population health supports this hypothesis, when applied to postmenopausal women:

Evidence suggests that HT will also help maintain or increase muscle mass, improve postatrophy muscle recovery, and enhance muscle strength in aged females.

This particular passage suggests it might not be exclusive to postmenopausal women:

One of the reasons for the relatively new interest in estrogenic effects on skeletal muscle was the identification of estrogen receptors (ER) in this tissue.

Passage containing more specific information:

Although research findings over the past 20 yr have reported conflicting results of HT on muscle mass in postmenopausal women, the preponderance of more recent evidence has “tipped the balance toward a positive and measurable impact of HT” and have highlighted the “proanabolic” effects of HT on skeletal muscle. Several recent studies examining postmenopausal women showed significantly greater muscle mass in women taking HT relative to nonusers.


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