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So, right now I am making a cladogram (More of a dendrogram) for a kingdom of fictional species, and I'm not exactly sure how to represent a certain relationship.

Let's say that the oldest class in the kingdom is Clade A. And, while it is a clade in itself, it also evolved into two other classes. The first class it evolved into was Clade B, but Clade A still persists. Then, later on, Clade A evolves into Clade C - but still persists.

If I was to represent this on a dendogram, how would it be done?

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The short answer is that cladograms are not compatible with Linnean taxonomy.

The longer answer explain how and why. First, there aren't enough ranks in Linnean taxonomy to cover all the cladogram nodes. The "kingdom-phylum-class-order-family..." was originally based on similiarity and not on phylogenetic relationship. For example: the class Reptilia is no longer a clade, and the class Aves is a subclade of the order Sauroschia (of the "super"-order Dinosauria, which is a clade of Diapsida which includes modern reptiles and crocodiles). The birds (Aves) are evolution descendants of dinosaurs but they ranked by Linneous as class while dinosaurs, according to Linnean taxonomy were at most super-order.

So you need to choose: a pseudo-Linnean relationship tree or a cladogram phylogenetic tree (and then you should omit the ranks' names "class", "order" etc.

I'll try to sketch the tree you described:

 A
 |
 |-- B
 |-- C
 |
 .
 .
 .
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  • $\begingroup$ Okay, I changed "Class" to "Clade". $\endgroup$ – SealBoi Jul 2 '18 at 12:42
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    $\begingroup$ A clade is a common ancestor and all of its descendants. So if "Clade A evolves into clade C" then clade C is a subclade of clade A. As long there are descendants of the common ancestor of clade A, clade A does not go extinct. $\endgroup$ – Dr. Evenor Jul 2 '18 at 13:01
  • $\begingroup$ Note that clade A still includes clades B and C! $\endgroup$ – Dr. Evenor Jul 2 '18 at 13:13

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