Estimations (or measurements) of bite force is usually conducted for toothy predators like sharks, theropod dinosaurs and crocodiles. For example: Tyrannosaurus had a bite force of about 57 kN (about 5.7 tonne-force) while a 5.2 meters long Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) recorded a 16,700 Newton bite (by Gregory M. Erickson). See my earlier question Reference for the bite force for Nile Crocodile for reference.

However, although paleontologists agree herbivore ceratopsian dinosaur Triceratops had quite a strong bite due to large jaw muscles anchored to (part of) the frill, and sharp hard beak. However, as far as I am aware, no one ever tried to quantify how strong is Triceratops bite. But maybe there are some estimations in paleontological literature and scientific research. So to sum-up my question:

What is the bite force of a fully-grown bull Triceratops?

Size for reference: Triceratops length was 8-9 meters and weighed 6-12 metric tonnes.



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