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DNA is how a species stores genetic information. Somehow the body needs to know what to do with this information. somehow the "machinery" that translates the DNA into proteins needs to be passed along with it.

Could this machinery also be encoded within the DNA? Or does it come automatically from some physical/chemical properties of dna? Or is it already present within the sperm/egg?

I am thinking if the dna somehow contains information on how to build the machinery to interpret it, we might be able to get a whole new understanding of how it works.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to SE Biology. Please read the Help on how to ask a question here. You are expected to demonstrate that you have done your own research before asking.Yours is a basic question that is covered in many biochemistry and biology texts, such as Berg. Please do some reading and then If you have specific questions post them here, explaining what you do not understand. Text book explanations of basic ideas in a subject are likely to be far more useful than the short answers here. $\endgroup$ – David Jul 24 '18 at 18:25
  • $\begingroup$ well, i come from a computer science background. biology is not my usual area of expertise so I don't know the right technical terms to put into google.... $\endgroup$ – abinmorth Jul 24 '18 at 21:12
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    $\begingroup$ Ok, but if I posted a similarly naive question on Stack Overflow, I would be treated much more severely. Computing Scientists entering bioinformatics have to take the trouble to educate themselves in molecular biology. I mentioned one good biochemical resource. NCBI bookshelf also has older versions of a couple of outstanding Molecular and Cell Biology texts: Lodish et al. and Alberts et al. Use them! $\endgroup$ – David Jul 24 '18 at 22:08
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Your question is very general, but it has a simple answer.

Yes. The protein machinery which interacts, reads, structures and manipulates the DNA strands is coded for in the DNA.

By way of example: one enzyme which opens the double helix is called DNA Helicase B. Once a DNA strand is accessible, another enzyme 'reads' (transcribes) DNA, called RNA Polymerase. In humans, the gene which produces helicase B is found on chromosome 12. The gene which produces one of the subunits for RNA polymerase is found on chromosome 10. These genes are essential for life; they are found in all organisms, perhaps excluding viruses, which hijack a host cell's machinery to duplicate their own DNA.

You may have also noticed that DNA by itself cannot 'read itself', it requires machinery in the form of proteins. How the first-ever replicating gene arose is an open question today. A likely candidate for the first ever gene, or unit of inheritance, is a kind of molecule called RNA, which is capable of storing information as well as catalyzing reactions (functioning as an enzyme).

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The machinery that manipulates and read the DNA (e.g. helicase, rRNA and RNA polymerase) is itself coded in the DNA.

Now, of course, if you put an individual DNA in a bowl of water, that won't be sufficient to create a new organism. An egg (ovule + spermatozoid) is not just DNA and a membrane. It contains a lot of stuff that was already present in the ovule is still present after the spermatozoid made its entry. There is already a lot of nutrients and a lot of proteins, including those needed to manipulate and read the DNA.

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Somehow the body needs to know what to do with this information.

No. That's not how it works. Chemicals interact with other chemicals according to their shape. Chemicals do not "know" anything.

somehow the "machinery" that translates the DNA into proteins needs to be passed along with it.

Well, yes, in that when an organism divides, or makes a gameme, it doesn't make an empty cell with DNA floating alone. The gamete or new organsim also gets the contents of the cytotol of the parent cell, which includes a bunch of of proteins.

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