Two obvious answers are genome doubling in plants, and Wolbachia-mediated infertility in insects. Both can cause one-generation speciation as measured by lack of interfertility.
Polyploidy, which arises through complex genetic and ecological processes, is an important mode of plant speciation. This review provides an overview of recent advances in understanding why plant polyploid species are so ubiquitous and diverse. We consider how the modern framework for understanding genetic mechanisms of speciation could be used to study allopolyploid speciation that occurs through hybrid genome doubling, that is, whole genome doubling of interspecific F1 hybrids by the union of male and female unreduced gametes.
--Genetic Mechanisms of Allopolyploid Speciation Through Hybrid Genome Doubling: Novel Insights from Wheat (Triticum and Aegilops) Studies
Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are reproductive parasites of arthropods. They are cytoplasmically inherited (i.e. from mothers to daughters, like mitochondria) and their phenotypic effects on their hosts range from induction of parthenogenesis in certain hymenopteran groups, to feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans and to induction of cytoplasmic incompatibility in many insects ... Three ways have been suggested4. The first suggestion is induction of parthenogenesis (assuming that the infection becomes fixed in the species). This process appears to occur in the hymenopteran Encarsia formosa7; males in this species can be obtained when mothers are treated with antibiotics, however, they are incapable of mating. The second way is offered by bidirectional incompatibility (Box 1). If a population is infected with two different strains of Wolbachia that are incompatible with each other, then bidirectional incompatibility will act as a post-zygotic reproductive barrier. A promising candidate is the species complex of the wasp genus Nasonia2, 3. The third way is offered by unidirectional incompatibility (Box 1). In this case, Wolbachia is acting as just one of the reproductive barriers enhancing speciation between two taxa.
--Wolbachia as a speciation agent
In general, though, the question seems to reflect a misunderstanding. Evolutionary theory doesn't suggest, let alone require, a sudden loss of interfertility during speciation. In many cases the lack of interfertility is incidental, and isn't selected; even in cases where it is selected, you expect to see the common gradual changes rather than abrupt transitions.