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The scat I most often encounter when out and about is from coyotes, black bears, deers and rodents. The deer and rodent droppings I find are in little pellets, what is different about their digestive system or their food choices that produces these perfectly uniform little balls?

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According to this article:

The material that cannot be broken down any further, such as indigestible fiber, passes directly into the large intestine. Here water is reabsorbed and the material is passed, making up the round droppings you see in your rabbit’s cage. This indigestible fiber is important in the diet of the rabbit as it helps to stimulate intestinal contractions, which keeps the chyme moving through the gastrointestinal tract.

While this article is specifically about rabbits, all herbivores require high quantities of fiber in their diets. Ruminants such as deer have different stomachs, but it is the large intestine, which is commonplace, that these pellets are formed. Fiber tends to clump together (either because the strands are attached or intertwined), and contractions in the intestine as the material is dehydrated cause these clumps to roll around similarly to pebbles in a rock tumbler, causing them to form round pellets. Carnivores and omnivores have (and need) less fiber in their diets, so this phenomenon is not present in their feces.

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