I want to know what gene or protein makes bacteria psychrotrophic, as opposed to regular bacteria that prefers warmer conditions. If you don’t know exactly, and you have suggestions as to where I can find the name of the gene, that would be great. I would also need the gene to be accessible so if anyone knows anything, please let me know. Thank you!

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    $\begingroup$ what is broader problem you are trying to solve? In other words, what do you want to achieve with this information? If you edit your question, adding these details, it might greatly help $\endgroup$ – aaaaa says reinstate Monica Oct 11 '18 at 22:02
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    $\begingroup$ Hello and welcome to Bio.SE! Take the tour to learn about the site and earn yourself your first badge. Also, what did you try in order to find the information you need? Can you give some example of psychrotrophic bacteria? $\endgroup$ – LinuxBlanket Oct 11 '18 at 22:37
  • $\begingroup$ Personally I would check out cold-shock proteins. See here for example. $\endgroup$ – user1136 Nov 21 '18 at 23:06

It is not necessarily about special (psychrophilic) genes, but rather about psychrophilic variants of their mesophilic and thermophilic homologs.

In general, lower temperature means lower rate of enzymatic reactions.

To cope with this problem, psychrophilic bacteria encode enzymes with highly mobile surface loops (higher mobility, higher catalytic rate).

Thermophilic bacteria have a different problem: enzymatic reactions are fast, but the enzymes are unstable; to cope with this problem, thermophilic bacteria encode enzymes with more rigid surface loops (more rigid, more stable).

Sočan et al. (2018) Catalytic Adaptation of Psychrophilic Elastase. Biochemistry 57: 2984-2993. Åqvist (2017) Cold Adaptation of Triosephosphate Isomerase. Biochemistry 56: 4169-4176.

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