I want to know what gene or protein makes bacteria psychrotrophic, as opposed to regular bacteria that prefers warmer conditions. If you don’t know exactly, and you have suggestions as to where I can find the name of the gene, that would be great. I would also need the gene to be accessible so if anyone knows anything, please let me know. Thank you!
It is not necessarily about special (psychrophilic) genes, but rather about psychrophilic variants of their mesophilic and thermophilic homologs.
In general, lower temperature means lower rate of enzymatic reactions.
To cope with this problem, psychrophilic bacteria encode enzymes with highly mobile surface loops (higher mobility, higher catalytic rate).
Thermophilic bacteria have a different problem: enzymatic reactions are fast, but the enzymes are unstable; to cope with this problem, thermophilic bacteria encode enzymes with more rigid surface loops (more rigid, more stable).