Can diet, supplements, drugs or exercise improve masculine appearance in men and feminine appearance in women?
In short, some of the mentioned factors can affect the appearance of the muscles and fat tissue but not the bones, face or genital organs. I'm not discussing about hormonal treatment here.
Resistant exercise in combination with sufficient calorie and protein intake can significantly increase the muscle mass (Essays in Biochemistry, 2008) in the limbs, torso and neck. You can't realistically expect that chewing or other facial exercises will significantly change the shape of your facial muscles.
If overweight, a hypocaloric diet can make you lose body fat and thus:
- make you look more fit
- make your jaw angle more prominent
- reduce your breast fat (gynecomastia)
- decrease your waist-hip ratio
A diet can result in increase or decrease, but not redistribution, of body fat, which is genetically determined (Diabetologia, 2014).
There seems to be no natural and healthy way by which you could increase the thickness or length of your bones or change their shape in adulthood.
Exercise does not significantly increase the thickness of your bones - only 1-2 mm increase was observed in one study in tennis players (American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1994).
High intake of calcium, vitamin D, other nutrients or supplements in adulthood also does not likely visibly increase the diameter of your bones (it may increase bone cortical thickness or bone density, though).
I haven't found any studies that would show how exercise or diet could increase bone length or shape in adults.
The shape of jawline is mainly determined by the shape of the jaw bone. While the jaw angle can be affected by the genetically determined thickness of the chewing muscles (Scientific Reports, 2018), it does not sound realistic to change the jaw angle by chewing or other exercise.
Shoulder and hip wideness
The shoulder and hip wideness is genetically determined by the length and width of the bones in the shoulder and pelvic girdle and cannot be significantly increased by exercise or diet.
I'm not aware of any exercise, diet or supplements that would significantly change the shape of genital organs.
There are psychological factors, attitudes, conscious effort and exercises that can significantly affect someones voice.
Hormones found in food
Soy and some other foods are high in phytoestrogens that can have some pro-estrogen activity, but do not likely significantly affect the appearance of the muscles or bones.
Nevertheless, the only positive effects of phytoestrogens on bone
observed so far in post-menopausal women have been small and limited
to the lumbar vertebrae. (Baillière's Clinical Endocrinology and
Estrogen or soy isoflavones given to postmenopausal women results in a
small increase in lean tissue mass. (Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.
Estrogen, testosterone, corticosteroids and other steroids and growth hormone can affectsome of the following features: the morphology of genitalia, muscle mass, body fat distribution, facial appearance and voice.