Some time ago I began to search for descriptions of the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system of man and to my great surprise the most recent relevant publication I found in periodic literature was published in 2004 (by Eisenhofer, G. et al) and reviewed metabolism of noradrenaline and other catecholamines only.

A bibliography appeared in 2012 under the title "Catecholamine Research in the 21st Century" "provides a guide to the diverse catecholamine research efforts across key themes including, Synthesis and Storage, Release and Re-uptake, Metabolism, Catecholamine Receptors and Catecholaminergic Signaling", but is it a review of the findings latest for the present moment?

I tried to find out looking for books published since 2012 reviewing neurochemistry, neurophysiology, neurobiology, mathematical and computational modelling with application to neuroscience and examining their contents did not find anything like a comprehensive review of the chemistry of noradrenaline.

For comparison a number of such reviews were dedicated to the chemistry of dopamine. An article authored by Meiser, J. et al. is "looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in Parkinson's disease research".

Alternative models were provided in the following publications:

Best, J. A., Nijhout, H. F., & Reed, M. C. (2009). Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model. Theoretical biology & medical modelling, 6, 21. doi:10.1186/1742-4682-6-21

Qi, Z., Miller, G. W., & Voit, E. O. (2008). Computational systems analysis of dopamine metabolism. PloS one, 3(6), e2444. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002444

A mathematical model of serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake was also created:

Best, J., Nijhout, H. F., & Reed, M. (2010). Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model. Theoretical biology & medical modelling, 7, 34. doi:10.1186/1742-4682-7-34

Can anyone provide an authoritative commentary to the picture outlined above?


Eisenhofer, G., Kopin, I. J., & Goldstein, D. S. (2004). Catecholamine metabolism: a contemporary view with implications for physiology and medicine. Pharmacological reviews, 56(3), 331-349.

Eiden, L. E. (Ed.). (2013). Catecholamine Research in the 21st Century: Abstracts and Graphical Abstracts, 10th International Catecholamine Symposium, 2012. Elsevier.

Meiser, J., Weindl, D., & Hiller, K. (2013). Complexity of dopamine metabolism. Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 11(1), 34. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-11-34


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