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I am going to take TOEFL, and am getting perplexed by the difference between cell division and budding and fragmentation of fungi.

Those three terms seem like all the same all to me, so could anyone teach me fundamentally how they differ from each other?

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which one cell becomes two. If we consider multicellular fungi, cell division happens whenever the fungi grows by one more cell. Cell division allows the growth of the organism. Cell division does not necessarily contribute into making a new multicellular organism.

Fragmentation

Fragmentation is a type of non-sexual reproduction. An organism gets split ("intentionally" or "unintentionally") and the different fragments develop into independent mature organisms. Sometimes, on fragment is small than the other one, so that one fragment can be seen as the "parent" and the other one as the "offspring".

Budding

Budding is a type of reproduction by fragmentation, where the splitting occurs due to a specific developmental pathway and not through some external environmental cause (such as getting cut in two by a researcher's knife, a falling tree or the bite of a predator). In other words, in budding, the splitting is "intentional".

More information


P.S. You won't need to know this biology stuff to get a good score at your TOEFL. On an unrelated personal note, I found this exam particularly unpleasant when I had to take it. Especially when we have to converse with a microphone while somehow ignoring the accents and english mistakes your neighbours are making while talking into their respective microphones. Good luck for your exam by the way :)

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  • $\begingroup$ I really appreciate your answer. Although you told me these knowledge are useless, nonetheless, these distinction from the textbook, you native speakers made. Thank you very much and much appreciation. $\endgroup$ – Kentaro Tomono Jan 1 at 6:19

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