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I have in my notes that a decrease in free Ca2+ increases membrane permeability to Na+ so that it is brought closer to threshold, but no further details. So how does this work?

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The thing is that the Voltage Gated Channels,they are closed in resting state because Ca2+ is bound to it.So,in the resting stage,Ca2+ somewhat blocks the Na+ - K+ channel.But since there is low Ca2+ so there won't be much Ca2+ for guarding of channels and so it will lead to an increase in permeability.See the photo and imagine the gate being guarded by a Ca2+.I hope this helps.See the photo and imagine the gate being guarded by a Ca2+ ion.

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