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I see studies that indicate elevated CO2 levels (>>400ppm) can cause cognitive impairment.

Are there also studies that investigate the effects of cognition under low CO2 levels (<<400ppm)?

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I can't think of any biological basis for such a study.

CO2 is produced as a waste product of metabolism and exists in the blood and lungs at levels far higher than atmospheric levels (~100X). Relative to the air in the lungs, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 might as well be zero.

Very high atmospheric CO2 (relative to normal atmospheric levels) can have cognitive effects (among others) because it prevents CO2 clearance from the lungs and therefore increases blood CO2 (hypercapnia) and can cause respiratory acidosis.

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  • $\begingroup$ Here's another good reference that supports what Bryan says here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breathing $\endgroup$ Feb 8, 2019 at 23:45
  • $\begingroup$ I guess impaired gas exchange makes sense for very high concentrations. Also in some studies high CO2 might correlate with cognitive effects due to confounders. $\endgroup$ Apr 27, 2021 at 11:07

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