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The NCE (Sodium Calcium Exchanger) transports 3 Na+ inside the cell for 1 Ca2+ outside. How did we figure this out, and other mechanisms of this sort? If it were a protein, we could tag it with GFP. But they're ions. Looking at potentials isnt very informative either I guess; both K+ and Na+ have the same charge. What is done, experimentally?

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