Lots of animals have their eyes more on the side of their head, like an octopus or a parrot. Are animals with eyes more on the side able to tell the depth of objects at different distances? It seems like the line of sight in each eye wouldn't be able to cross to a singular point to triangulate distance.
Many such creatures do overlap in part of their field of view. Some don't. Presumably, the former still have some range sense. It's generally accepted that range judgment it's far more valuable to predators while herbivores focus on movement over a wide range. (at least in the sources I've read on this.)
Focal length can provide some amount of depth information, but not like comparing two angles. ("accommodation " in the wiki article on depth perception)
Parallax can provide some useful depth information. This is a function of basoc geometry. (In the same article, see "motion parallax", "occultation", and "perspective")
Theoretically, if a creature is precisely enough aware of its movement, it could pick up depth by rotating its head. This is because of the previously mentioned geometry. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depth_perception#cite_note-5)
Not sure if any animals actually do this, but some birds seem to.
This answer is, fundamentally, just a summary of elementary information. The wiki entry on depth perception chops up the list of factors a lot more fine than I did off the top of my head.
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