Regarding the Broadbill Swordfish Xiphias gladius:

I read Richard Ellis "Swordfish: A Biography of the Ocean Gladiator", Chicago University Press, 2013. The chapter about industrial-strength fishing described that up to the late 20th century, swordfish population was decimated due to overfishing. In chapter 11 he discusses whether the swordfish is endangered and describe the late 1990's conservation efforts. It says that there is a rise in swordfish population in the North Atlantic (but say we don't know if the population fully recovered to its heydays) and say there is little information for the Pacific and Mediterranean populations.

I found some info in https://www.fishwatch.gov for the North Atlantic and North Pacific population, saying that north Atlantic and western north Pacific are not overfished and not subject to overfishing (I think this is good), while the eastern north Pacific is not overfished but subject to overfishing. The ICCAT published a report Atlantic, ICCAT 2017 which is hard to read. What I understood the north Atlantic is not overfished while the south Atlantic population is overfished and in danger. For the Pacific, see Pacific, ICCAT 2018, which says that the north central and western Pacific are not overfished:

Overall, the base case model indicated that the WCNPO swordfish stock is not likely overfished and is not likely experiencing overfishing relative to MSY-based or 20% of unfished spawning biomass-based reference points.

These reports are hard to read for non-expert, so I ask here few questions about the populations of swordfish:

  1. Is the swordfish endangered species?
  2. Is the swordfish population sustainable?
  3. Per population P = { North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific, Indian, Mediterranean }:

    3.1 Is the population P endangered?

    3.2 Is the population is safe (non-threatened) or least concern?

    3.3 Did the population fully recovered and reach a healthy size?

Swordfish (from Wikipedia)


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