We know animals can recognize proximate causes. For example, if animal A hits animal B and injures it then usually animal B is able to associate animal A with his injury. From our everyday experience with pets and other animals we know that. What about distal causes? Proximate causes are not always the most appropriate causes, sometimes distal causes are more appropriate to identify the responsible agents. Let's modify the previous hypothetical example by bringing another animal, animal C: Animal C pushes animal B so that animal A hits animal B and injures it. If animal B is capable of recognizing distal causes, it'll associate animal C with his injury (not animal B which is the proximate cause of the injury).