Elevated homocysteine levels are listed among risk factors for angina. How is homocysteine related to the heart? Or the coronary arteries? How do these relationships make it a risk factor for angina?
- Causes endothelial dysfunction and damage
- Accelerates thrombin formation
- Inhibits native thrombolysis
- Promotes lipid peroxidation through free radical formation
- Induces vascular smooth muscle proliferation
- Promotes monocyte chemotaxis
Many observational epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with higher Homocysteine levels have increased risks of cardiovascular disease.