I am a student of Mathematics.Since I found no better place to ask my question I post it here.

I was looking for some classes of graphs which are used in biology.

I came across this particular class of graphs called kite graphs whose link can be found here https://rpubs.com/thoughtfulbloke/kitegraph.

I found it interesting because graphs are mathematical objects and finding them useful in biology is naturally very interesting.

I also find research papers in Mathematics involving kite graphs.

My question is what are some classes of graphs like the kite graphs which are used in biology. Where can I find them?

In case someone helps,I will be grateful to them.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ this question is currently very broad and may be closed for that reason. Please consider narrowing the scope of your question further. Thank you. $\endgroup$ Apr 27, 2019 at 15:24
  • $\begingroup$ joining the question - I am looking also for common categories of graphs used in biology. When I write categories, I mean for instance: tress, unicyclic graphs, bipartite graphs, and so on. I tried to look for scientific articles that reviewing it, but did not find any related survey. $\endgroup$
    – RD7
    Jun 2, 2021 at 14:42

1 Answer 1


I don't think there is a single "class of graph" that isn't used in biology.

In biology (just like in any other natural science), we have all kind of data types;

  • non-ordinal variables
  • boolean
  • ordinal categorical
  • numeric
  • tree data
  • other types of network data
  • pure functions (from statistical or theoretical models)
  • pictures
  • sounds
  • etc..

We make all kind of graphs out of these data;

  • scater plot
  • points or lines with eventually error bars
  • bar graphs with eventually error bars
  • kites
  • boxplot
  • images (colored shaped kind of things; e.g. density maps)
  • phase diagrams
  • multidimensional graphs
  • pie charts
  • function graphs
  • Venn diagrams
  • existential graphs
  • flow diagrams (incl. alluvial diagrams, spankey diagrams, ...)
  • trees
  • matching trees
  • other types of networks
  • schematic representations
  • pictures
  • spectrograms
  • videos
  • interactive graphs
  • etc...

One can really display any kind of data / information in anyway (s)he wants to.

Kite graphs are just simple graphs to compare frequencies variation along a continuous variable and among a categorical (ordinal or not) variable. It isn't the most common types of graphs but we see them. As a matter of fact, in a paper of mine that is currently under revision the figure 1 is a kite graph (with nested non-ordinal categorical variables).

Just look at random papers to find graphs. Go on google.scholar.com and search for any biology subject and you'll find papers with graphs.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I am asking for graphs which can be described mathematically $\endgroup$
    – user51337
    May 1, 2019 at 5:37
  • $\begingroup$ A kite graph is a graph with a closed cycle and a path $\endgroup$
    – user51337
    May 1, 2019 at 5:37
  • $\begingroup$ But can you describe the graphs you have written like that $\endgroup$
    – user51337
    May 1, 2019 at 5:37

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