Classes of Graphs used in Biology

I am a student of Mathematics.Since I found no better place to ask my question I post it here.

I was looking for some classes of graphs which are used in biology.

I came across this particular class of graphs called kite graphs whose link can be found here https://rpubs.com/thoughtfulbloke/kitegraph.

I found it interesting because graphs are mathematical objects and finding them useful in biology is naturally very interesting.

I also find research papers in Mathematics involving kite graphs.

My question is what are some classes of graphs like the kite graphs which are used in biology. Where can I find them?

In case someone helps,I will be grateful to them.

• this question is currently very broad and may be closed for that reason. Please consider narrowing the scope of your question further. Thank you. Apr 27 '19 at 15:24
• joining the question - I am looking also for common categories of graphs used in biology. When I write categories, I mean for instance: tress, unicyclic graphs, bipartite graphs, and so on. I tried to look for scientific articles that reviewing it, but did not find any related survey.
– RD7
Jun 2 '21 at 14:42

I don't think there is a single "class of graph" that isn't used in biology.

In biology (just like in any other natural science), we have all kind of data types;

• non-ordinal variables
• boolean
• ordinal categorical
• numeric
• tree data
• other types of network data
• pure functions (from statistical or theoretical models)
• pictures
• sounds
• etc..

We make all kind of graphs out of these data;

• scater plot
• points or lines with eventually error bars
• bar graphs with eventually error bars
• kites
• boxplot
• images (colored shaped kind of things; e.g. density maps)
• phase diagrams
• multidimensional graphs
• pie charts
• function graphs
• Venn diagrams
• existential graphs
• flow diagrams (incl. alluvial diagrams, spankey diagrams, ...)
• trees
• matching trees
• other types of networks
• schematic representations
• pictures
• spectrograms
• videos
• interactive graphs
• etc...

One can really display any kind of data / information in anyway (s)he wants to.

Kite graphs are just simple graphs to compare frequencies variation along a continuous variable and among a categorical (ordinal or not) variable. It isn't the most common types of graphs but we see them. As a matter of fact, in a paper of mine that is currently under revision the figure 1 is a kite graph (with nested non-ordinal categorical variables).

Just look at random papers to find graphs. Go on google.scholar.com and search for any biology subject and you'll find papers with graphs.

• I am asking for graphs which can be described mathematically
– user51337
May 1 '19 at 5:37
• A kite graph is a graph with a closed cycle and a path
– user51337
May 1 '19 at 5:37
• But can you describe the graphs you have written like that
– user51337
May 1 '19 at 5:37