What is the name of the science that studies the mathematics of DNA?
Where can I learn about maths, statistics, types of code, numbers, patterns and graphs for genes and information found in DNA?
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I can think of several possible terms for what you could mean (with my interpretation of what people in those fields do):
These all bleed into each other and doubtless other people have different interpretations.
There has been a ton of work in these areas, so they probably cover what you mean, but without some more concrete examples it's a little hard to say which is most appropriate.
As an aside, "DNA decryption" will be interpreted by most people in light of attempts to encode non-biological data in DNA and then decode it (see e.g. george church's stunts). However, based on what you say I think this is not really what you are interested in.
If you are looking for the technical literature for such fields, you could see the following journals, which are some of the better-known peer-reviewed journals focusing on these areas: