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I am constantly amazed at how we cannot differentiate between male and female.

The International Olympic committee sets the target testosterone at 5 nmol per deciliter with active androgen receptors.

What are active androgen receptors? Do they count sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound Testosterone, especially in the brain? If I was serious about asking someone who would I ask ?

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Whatever is the exact definition of the threshold that the Olympic committee sets, it's going to be relatively arbitrary and unfair to some people.

When it comes down to it, biology is generally messy and blurry, and that includes matters of sex and gender. Thus, even if most people cluster in a fairly straightforward manner into male and female, there are all sorts of things like androgen insensitivity syndrome that can end up causing a person's normal body state to be judged as too extreme for their gender.

In the end, there is no simple line that can be drawn simply because the biology of gender permits many different ways for naturally occurring variations to form a continuum across any given metric that one might wish to establish.

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