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9 years, 11 months ago
What are the evolution operators, meaning allowed actions on the DNA sequence that encodes a protein.
I assume all evolution of genes is a result of duplication errors. So an answer could look somewhat like this: duplication of gene into two identical ones, omitting of nucleotide, addition of nucleotide and so on.
And some followup questions:
Does this mean that originally there were very few genes and they were very short?
If so - how few? How short?
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Jun 9, 2013 at 15:19
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An old microbial geneticists' adage is: anything that can happen will happen, and you just need to find a way to select for what you are seeking.
A look at
the Wikipedia page on mutation might be instructive.
Jun 10, 2013 at 10:34
Alan Boyd Alan Boyd
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The most frequent mechanisms are
Intragenic mutations: when existing genes mutate modifying gene function.
Gene duplication: leads to related genes in a single cell. A gene duplicates and then as two copies are available, one is free to change
Segment shuffling: leads to hybridisation of different DNA segments.
Horizontal transfer is transfer of DNA from one cell to another
Transduction: infection of cells by viruses or other intracellular pathogens where their DNA can integrate into the genome
You are incorrect to say all evolution occurs due to duplication. Your follow up questions are too vague. Genes can become larger or smaller, but yes as they increase so does their diversity.
Jun 9, 2013 at 21:51
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