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What are the known junk substances which the body is unable to dispose of and which build up in the brain with age to eventually causes age related problems?

Starting with the most obvious ones:

Amyloid beta - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amyloid_beta

Lipofuscin - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipofuscin

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    $\begingroup$ I'm voting to close this question as off-topic because a group effort to draw up a list is not a question in the terms of SE Biology. $\endgroup$ – David Sep 22 '19 at 16:48
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    $\begingroup$ @david it would be valuable info to have it all in one place, don't you think? I reworded the question $\endgroup$ – Retardi Grade Sep 22 '19 at 20:21
  • $\begingroup$ It may well be, but that place is not here — this is a site for answers to specific biological questions. I could perhaps also have voted to close on the basis that your question was too broad, but I thought your misunderstanding of the way SE works needed addressing. Imagine there are reviews on this topic by people far more expert than those on this list. $\endgroup$ – David Sep 22 '19 at 20:43
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Another example is the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease, so-called because neurofibrillary tangles have a ribbon-like structure when viewed under the electron microsocope.

It is now accepted that paired helical filaments consist of a single protein, microtubule-associated protein tau, in a polymerized and hyper-phosphorylated state. (see Lee and co-workers).

This old answer might also be of interest and contains a fuller reference list.

Neurofibrillary tangles are one of the two characteristic lesions of brain first described by Alzheimer, and are intracellular. The other characteristic lesion is the extracellular neuritic plaques caused by the build up of amyloid-beta (as the OP points out), which is itself part of a much larger transmembrane protein (of unknown function), the amyloid precursor protein or APP.

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  • $\begingroup$ RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS form aggregates that accumulate in the cytoplasm, whereas these proteins would normally be predominantly soluble within the nucleus and shuttling to and from the cytoplasm. - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23463272 $\endgroup$ – Retardi Grade Sep 30 '19 at 8:21

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