We know that a person develops antibodies by active immunisation after the administration of vaccines (either in dead form / live attenuated form). Is there any chance of developing the same disease in immuno compromised persons after reaching adulthood?
Short answer: Yes.
Slightly longer answer: Recall how a vaccine works - it introduces an antigen to the body, which provokes the body to produce antibodies towards that antigen.
Antibodies, simply explained, call upon the remainder of the immune system to fight off a potential infection of foreign body. If there is no immune system to mobilize, the infection would most likely run its course. However, the immune system would have to be sufficiently weakened in order to not be able to fight the infection.
While I don't know about polio specifically, some diseases do require "booster shots" as the initial immunity can be "forgotten" by the immune system*. For instance, it's recommended to get a tetanus booster shot every 10 years or so. But with other diseases, immunity apparently lasts for life. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booster_dose
*This is different than getting annual flu vaccines. In this case, it's the virus that tends to mutate, so that previous vaccines are no longer effective.