Specifically the part of the brain that does depth perception based on binocular vision. I have searched all over the web and have turned up nothing. Is it the same part of the brain that processes all images from the retina?
the neurons in the middle temporal area of the brain are combining visual information and physical movement to extract depth information
This Scientific American article states that there is a process involved:
Visual-image processing from the eye to the brain happens in stages. Rudimentary features such as the orientation of edges, direction of motion, color, and so on are extracted early on in areas called V1 and V2 before reaching the next stages in the visual-processing hierarchy for a progressively more refined analysis. This stage-by-stage description is a caricature; many pathways go “back” from stage to stage—allowing the brain to play a kind of 20-questions game to arrive at a solution after successive iterations.
This process is discussed further in this article with what is known as the Laminart model.
Some regions of primary visual cortex (V1; physically at the very back of the cortex) respond to visual stimuli present in either eye. These are called "binocular" regions, for obvious reasons. Some of the neurons in these regions are "disparity-tuned", in the sense that they respond most strongly when a stimulus is present on both retina, at a particular retinal distance apart. This has been known for cats for some time (Fisher & Kruger 1978). The suggestion is that information from disparity-tuned neurons are used for depth discrimination (Ohzawa et al. 1990).
There may be other mechanisms as well, which use relative motion and ocular convergence to estimate distance.