I mean, can we create with the help of DNA-origami figures that would not consist of DNA, but, for example, carbon? Is it even possible?
I interpret your question to ask this:
Can DNA origami be used as scaffolds for the guided assembly of other non-DNA structures?
Yes. From what I've read, two- and three-dimensional DNA structures can be used for nanoparticle assembly and as a nucleation factor in the crystallization of proteins and minerals. You can find these examples and more in a lengthy review here. Specifically, read section 6.6, Programming the Structure and Conformation of Non-DNA Materials.