I am looking for the articles in which Lotka and Volterra published their original predator prey model. I couldn’t find the model presented in many textbooks in Lotka’s book Elements of Physical Biology or Volterra’s paper Fluctuations in the Abundance of a Species considered Mathematically.

Is there really Lotka–Volterra model for dynamics of two competing species? On Wikipedia and Murray’s book Mathematical Biology: an Introduction, it is written that it exists but I couldn’t find it in their papers.


Volterra’s Variations and Fluctuations of the Number of Individuals in Animal Species living together features what is nowadays often called the generalised Lotka–Volterra model. Thus it captures competition between and with populations. In particular, Section 2 is titled:

Biological Association of two Species which contend for the same Food.

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