I am preparing a seminar on viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in bacteria, mainly foodborne pathogens and I just saw this line in a journal article by Lothigius et al that "the expression of the virulence gene in VBNC cells does not necessarily indicate the cells will produce toxins". Any explanation on what this statement means?
Lothigius, Å., Sjöling, Å., Svennerholm, A.-M., & Bölin, I. (2010). Survival and gene expression of enterotoxigenicEscherichia coliduring long-term incubation in sea water and freshwater. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108(4), 1441–1449.