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  1. What causes carrier proteins to change shape ?

  2. Do they need energy to change shape? If that is true, how are they involved in Facilitated diffusion ?

  3. By changing shape, do we always mean opens from one side and closes from another ? (they all work by changing shape right ?)

  4. once they transport a molecule from inside to outside, do they return to their original shape instantly or do they need to transport a substance from inside to the outside to return to their original shape ?

  5. and finally, are all co-transport proteins carrier proteins ?

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