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As we see with ZCA2, ECA2 & XCA2 these branches are compressed and do not extend as TCA does. Is there a technical term for this and what usually causes it?

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The phenomenon where you have different "evolutionary clocks" of selection is called heterotachy. The branches are therefore heterotachic or simply long branches —long branch attraction is a problem with Bayesian inference for which many arguments have been had, so there is a lot of literature on it.

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