# How many times have the cells in a human body divided?

Every single cell in a multicellular organism can in principle trace its "ancestry" back to the zygote through a continuous chain of cell divisions. How many divisions have occurred in a typical cell in an adult human body since the zygote was fertilized?

Obviously the answer depends on the organism's age and on the type of cell (as different types of cells divide at different rates). To be concrete, what is the average number of cell generations from the zygote across all the cells in, say, a typical 25-year-old human?

(Or any other age, if that's more convenient to estimate. I'd also be curious about the approximate minimum and maximum number of divisions, and which types of cells they occur in. If it's too difficult to estimate these statistics over the whole organism, I'd be interested to know if there are any specific types of specialized cells for which it's possible to estimate the "generation number".)

To be clear, I'm not asking about the maximum number of times that a cell can divide. I'm asking about the average number of times it has divided at a given point in time.

• As a starting point for further exploration, Fig. 1 of this paper shows an association between different cancer types and the lifetime total divisions for the stem cell subtypes from which those cancers are derived. The authors give their derivations of the replication rates for each subtype in the supplement (PDF download). – Dirigible Dec 19 '19 at 16:17

The supplemental material of the paper that Dirigible references in a comment to my question gives a rough estimate of these values. If I understand their simple model correctly, then we can estimate the average number of times that the stem cells in various types of tissues have divided over an 80-year lifespan from Table S.1 by finding the row corresponding to a cancer of that tissue, and then calculating $$\log_2(s) + d$$, where $$s$$ and $$d$$ are given in the table. (For specialized cells, I guess you'd add 1 more to capture the final cell division that produces the specialized cell?)