In the field of HIV prevention, PrEP is an abbreviation of pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is a very generic term. Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using a similar approach? Do they use the same name?
Prophylaxis is typically prior to exposure. Condoms, for example, were historically referred to as prophylactics, in that they prevent pregnancy and many STIs. The reason the pre-exposure bit is given special attention in this context is that it refers to use of drugs with substantial risk of harm. Because of their associated risk, these drugs were previously only used for post exposure prophylaxis. Similar to rabies vaccination after an animal bite, this strategy involves preventative treatment given after exposure but before a critical point in the progress of an infection.
To more directly answer your questions
Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using pre-exposure prophylaxis?
Many, many, many diseases. Vaccines are a good example of prophylactic treatment, typically given prior to exposure. Malaria prophylaxis is another example, where a medication (with non insignificant risk of harm) is given to healthy people traveling to an endemic area.
Do they use a different term?
In most cases, as you can see by searching for the words used in the linked references, the term is simply prophylaxis, rather than pre-exposure prophylaxis.