I have a dog named Penny and a cat named Milo. I always wonder if Milo knows Penny's name, and vice versa. So if I call Penny, does Milo know that I just called her? Similarly for humans, if someone is over the house that they're familiar with, do they know that person's name? If someone calls me by name, do my pets know that I've been called?
What about other interactions - not just calling someone (scolding, feeding, asking to do a trick, etc).
I'm looking for a more scientific answer if possible - meaning studies and facts. I've had dogs all my life, and cats for the past 10+ years, so I know they're very smart. But I want more than just "I know my dog knows my cat's name, because she's just so smart". I'm wondering if anyone has ever studied this and proven it one way or the other.