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When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood against intracellular proteins of the infectious bacteria. What is the mechanism which produces antibodies to intracellular proteins, which are never exposed to our immune system.

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  • $\begingroup$ "When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated." Can you mention a source for this premise? (Specifically, the assertion that only surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by the immune system.) $\endgroup$ – Adhish Apr 29 at 10:25
  • $\begingroup$ @AdhishSethi microbiologyonline.org/index.php/about-microbiology/… I am little confused here. Please help me to understand the intracellular part better. $\endgroup$ – Riq Apr 29 at 15:29
  • $\begingroup$ Hmm, this article talks of B cell responses rather than the immune system in general. As far as I know, antibodies to bacteria are formed against toxins and cell surface molecules only. Can you also cite a source that mentions antibodies against bacterial intracellular components? (I hope you are not tired of adding sources :P) Preferably, add all your sources to the body of the question so that users don't need to look through the comments. Thanks. $\endgroup$ – Adhish Apr 29 at 21:10

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