I read in National Council for Education and Training study guide (NCERT) that Planaria (flat worms) undergo true regeneration. Fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses multiply by fragmentation.

In Planaria (flat worms), we observe true regeneration, i.e. a fragmented organism regenerates the lost part of its body and becomes a new organism. The fungi, the filamentous algae, the protonema of mosses, all easily multiply by fragmentation.

What is the difference between fragmentation and true regeneration?

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    $\begingroup$ Do not post in all caps - all caps is perceived as "shouting" on the internet and is usually very rude. Do not post images of text instead of the text itself: it's difficult for screen readers and cannot be indexed. Please edit to correct these issues. $\endgroup$ – Bryan Krause Aug 10 at 15:27

Regeneration is the ability of a creature to repair or regrow an organ after cutting it. Not all creatures can regenerate. If you cut a human hand it won't grow to a full human nor the human regrow a new hand Some salamandras can regrow their tail if amputated but the tail itself won't becoma a salamndra Planaria, Star fish, and plants can regenerate if the amputated organ has regenerative cells. The original organism will regrow the organ and the organ will grow a full organism. Fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses do not regenerate when fragmented in the sense that there is no real organ to regenerate. For example, the mycelia of Fungi is composed of many hyphea, creating new is independent of loosing them

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    $\begingroup$ As you are relatively new here, you may not realize that the diamond after Bryan’s name indicates that he is a moderator. When a mod asks a poster to edit a question it is good practice to refrain from answering until the problems are fixed. Otherwise the poster may feel he may ignore the injunction with impunity. $\endgroup$ – David Aug 11 at 21:47
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    $\begingroup$ Thanks for your contribution. You seem to address only the definition of regeneration, and not the difference it bears with fragmentation. Further, answers need to be backed up by sources, preferably references to papers from reputable journals, to allow others to background-read on your material. $\endgroup$ – AliceD Aug 19 at 7:47

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