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What is the effect of luteinizing hormone on the endometrium?

A general answer to this query is that it only thickens it. The same could also be said for the effect of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the endometrium as well.

Where lies the difference?

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Both FSH and LH are indirectly involved in endometrial thickening:

  • GnRH regulates release of the gonadotropins- luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from specialized cells (gonadotropes) in the anterior pituitary gland
  • LH and FSH promote ovulation and stimulate secretion of the sex hormones estradiol (and estrogen) and progesterone from the ovaries.
  • As estradiol levels increase, the intact basal layer regenerates the endometrium to its maximum thickness late in the ovarian follicular phase (proliferative phase of the endometrial cycle). ...{1}

Again, wikipedia{2} says the same:

...In both cases, the endometrium initially proliferates under the influence of estrogen.

The difference between the hormones, of course lies in their other functions. You can see this for more on that. To clarify again, the endometrium does not thicken 'differently' under the influence of each.

{1}-https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/female-reproductive-endocrinology/female-reproductive-endocrinology?query=lh

{2}-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endometrium#Cycle

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extending @Bipasha: (cant comment yet)

  • As the endometrium gets to the to the mid-cycle (ovulation), the LH surges, and the become more dominant in the "luteinising phase" of the ovary. In this phase, in response to the LH, the ovary secrete progesterone that "stables" the endometrium in the "secretory phase".
  • When the LH drops, the progesterone drops and the endometrium sheds. In clinical perspective it's called "progesterone withdrawal" and the principal used for fertility evaluation.
  • When the regular and timely mensuration occurs, its serves as an indirect indication that the endometrium "saw" estrogen (or other derivative as esterdiol) and later, progresteron.
  • In other words, in the right physiological fertile context, LH is indirectly stabilise the endometrium.
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