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I saw this in Wikipedia:

Birds do have a larynx, but unlike in mammals, it does not vocalize.

And this pdf in Google. It claims that birds do have a pharnyx.

Do birds have a structure called pharnyx? (Mention the ref. please)

enter image description here

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  • $\begingroup$ Pharynx and larynx are not the same. $\endgroup$ – kmm Sep 13 '20 at 15:44
  • $\begingroup$ @kmm I said that they are? $\endgroup$ – a.RR Sep 13 '20 at 21:41
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  1. Yes, birds do have a pharynx.

Birds can breathe through the mouth or the nostrils (nares). Air entering these openings (during inspiration) passes through the pharynx & then into the trachea (or windpipe). {1}

  1. The larynx can't produce sound -- it's only there for breathing and eating. Instead, birds' sounds are produced at the bottom of the trachea, just above where the trachea branches into the lungs. This juncture, made of cartilage, is the syrinx.

The syrinx is the vocal organ of birds. Located at the base of a bird's trachea, it produces sounds without the vocal folds of mammals. The sound is produced by vibrations of some or all of the membrana tympaniformis (the walls of the syrinx) and the pessulus, caused by air flowing through the syrinx. This sets up a self-oscillating system that modulates the airflow creating the sound. {2}

Since birds have both a syrinx and a larynx, it's unclear exactly when the syrinx took over sound production duty for the larynx.

{1}-http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/birdrespiration.html#:~:text=Birds%20can%20breathe%20through%20the,as%20long%20as%20the%20neck.

{2}-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrinx_(bird_anatomy)

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