The nano-machinary of energy production ATP synthase is well known to exist on mitochondrial inner membrane and chloroplasts. But how and where are they formed or synthesised ?

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to SE Biology. Please read the Help on asking questions, where you will see that you are expected to show the research you have done before posting. Have you searched for ATP Synthase or Synthesis of Mitochondrial Proteins. There must be Wikipedia entries on this topic. $\endgroup$
    – David
    Sep 18 '20 at 7:47
  • $\begingroup$ Sorry that I have no such things to add. I'm only a 12th grade student just interested in the topic. Thank you for the advice , I'll try to improve the way I post questions. $\endgroup$
    – Sarika
    Sep 18 '20 at 8:27
  • $\begingroup$ Yeah : ) questions don't even end there. One can go on and on endlessly to new levels of understanding. I would definitely be delighted to feed my 'what's next's but it's inevitable after a certain level there will be none to answer. That doesn't curb the quest though ;) thank you for finding me those topics ! $\endgroup$
    – Sarika
    Sep 18 '20 at 12:18

The interesting thing is that the mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of many subunit proteins, both encoded by nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. It has long been unclear exactly how these synthases are assembled, and what differences exist between bacteria, yeast, and humans - where ATP synthase formation is normally studied. Regardless, each of these proteins is translated on ribosomes from mRNA transcripts of genes, just like regular proteins. However, these must come together correctly (in the right order) and end up in the correct location.

There are recent publications that answers your question rather directly.

Assembly of the membrane domain of ATP synthase in human mitochondria

In short:

We have shown that the assembly of human ATP synthase in the inner [mitochondrial] membrane involves the formation of a monomeric intermediate made from 25 nuclear-encoded proteins into which the two mitochondrially encoded subunits are inserted and then sealed by association of another nuclear-encoded protein, thereby dimerizing the complex. Association of a final nuclear protein oligomerizes the dimers back-to-face along the cristae [inner membrane of the mitochondrion] edges.

A commentary on the paper is also available, which provides insight into the historical and biological context and difficulties which the paper addresses and overcomes. It may be worth reading their synopsis first. You can find it here:

Assembling the mitochondrial ATP synthase

  • $\begingroup$ I admire the elucidation. Thank you ! $\endgroup$
    – Sarika
    Sep 18 '20 at 9:59
  • $\begingroup$ And sorry that the question was closed. The mods and voters are quite overly zealous here sometimes. Neither a duplicate nor a homework question. Interesting question, certainly. $\endgroup$
    – S Pr
    Sep 23 '20 at 11:32
  • $\begingroup$ At first it somewhat disappointed me too. being a newcomer in SE I had problems understanding a dialogue box, which stated that somone suggested there's something similar to my question out there and asked me if it meets my queries. Finding that question resourceful and interesting I clicked yes and right after that my question turned duplicate . Surprised me ! Anyway, the tiny piece of machine inside our cells is marvelous enough to ignore all that, Thanks :) $\endgroup$
    – Sarika
    Sep 23 '20 at 15:24

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