I hold to the truth of Evolution, but I've encountered several problems with it, that I can't answer, and I can't find an answer for, despite much research. If would be great if anyone can answer these supposedly fatal problems for Biological Evolution, since I find it troubling that there appears to be no answer for these.
The first one is called the mutation protection paradox. Simply put, Evolution has evolved mechanisms to protect itself from mutations, that if left unchecked, would build up and wreck the biological system, yet the mutation repair and protection mechanisms guard and stop the very changes that allow Evolution to occur, which is mutation.
Is there an answer to this paradox?
The problem of genetic entropy. John Sanford has supposedly shown in his book Genetic Entropy and the mystery of the genome, that the human genome is degrading so quickly, that we could not have evolved from ape like creatures over millions of years.
The problem is supposedly that we have 100-300 more mutations than either of our parents. This is supposed to mean that 100-300 new mutations accumulate in every person, in every single generation. Then it's said that these mutations are so small they cannot be gotten rid of by natural selection, and that the vast majority are harmful to the human genotype.
Because the mutations are unselectable, they are left to build up in all people until the entire human race becomes extinct, and it is estimated that this should have occurred in less than 80,000 years. So if Evolution were true, we wouldn't be here to talk about it.
The person presenting this problem gave answers to two responses. He gave a response to the Evolutionist retort that most mutations are not harmful but neutral by saying "most mutations are neutral from the perspective of the organism’s physical fitness (phenotype), but all mutations must have effect on the genetic content (genotype). In no way are mutations truly neutral – they all must have effect on the genotype, even if they only affect the efficiency of transferRNA production. And as pointed out above, most are harmful."
Then he gave a response to the Evolutionist retort that -almost all of the unselectable mutations will occur in non-coding regions of the DNA (the so-called, Junk DNA), and therefore have no effect. Thus, the individual will not die and the population will not become extinct- by saying quote:
"Non-coding DNA does not code for proteins and scientists have previously thought it is largely useless. But mutations in the non-coding DNA won’t make them without effect since non-coding DNA helps during embryonic development and can be a part of many diseases. The idea that non-coding DNA absorbs mutations, thereby making them neutral, is false and is merely an argument from ignorance."
Is there an answer to this?
This can be called the meta-informaton paradox. How it goes is that you have two types of dynamics. Primary DNA which tells what proteins to make, and meta-information which tells the cell how to maintain the primary DNA. So it is said that primary DNA and meta-information are completely dependent on one another. If they become unrelated to each other, both become unusable and the animal would die.
The problem is that mutations are random, and thus completely independent events, and this means primary DNA and meta-information would evolve by completely random and independent events and thus would not be able to stay relevant and related to one another, which then creates a barrier stopping microbes to man evolution from taking place.
The person claims his calculations show that there is 1 chance in 10 to the 150 billion, that all species have evolved, each from a previous species. Here's how his calculation works.
He says he is being as generous as possible with Evolution, and has five assumptions:
Assumption 1: Evolution must occur by a net gain in new information. However, this is completely disregarded. We will simply assume that all beneficial mutations produce evolutionary change (including so called 'neutral mutations' which become beneficial later on).
Assumption 2: The rate of beneficial mutations is widely thought to be 1 for every million mutations. Indeed, scientists have observed millions more harmful or 'neutral' mutations than beneficial mutations. But we will assume that the frequency of occurrence is 1 beneficial mutation per 1,000 mutations.
Assumption 3: It will be assumed that 5,000 mutations are needed to make a species 'evolve' into another species (where the two species cannot interbreed). Although the number needed for new single-celled species to arise is probably less, other higher animals require millions more beneficial mutations than accounted for here (40 million mutational differences exist between chimpanzees and humans, though different genus).
Assumption 4: We will assume that the total amount of species that have lived in the past is 10 million. In fact, this is the upper end of the estimate for species living today. If 99% of all species have become extinct as many Darwinists claim, then our assumption is extremely generous.
Assumption 5: It will be assumed that every single beneficial mutation is fixed in the population after occurrence. This is very unrealistic (in favour of evolution, of course). Beneficial mutations can be lost from a population in a variety of ways; sexual reproduction and death being just a few causes.
Calculating the chance that 50 million species have evolved from a common ancestor:
Chance of 1 beneficial occurring: 1 in 1,000.
Chance of 2 beneficials occurring: 1 in 1,0002.
Chance of 5,000 beneficials occurring (needed to make one species evolve into another): 1 in 1015,000 (i.e. 1 in 1,0005,000).
Chance that 10 million species evolved: 1 in 1015,00010 million.
Therefore: 1 in 10150 billion.