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I found this strange disease on the leaves of a pear tree. I don't know the tree's species but I found it in South Turkey, 150 km from the Mediterranean. What causes this disease?

pear leaves with orange spots and protruding white spikes

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This is pear rust (Gymnosporangium sabinae).

enter image description here

It is fairly widespread in the northern hemisphere: enter image description here

It is a fungal infection and affects pear trees from junipers. Pruning the affected nearby junipers can help control its spread.

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