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Quoting Richard Feynman from Chapter 3 of his book Six Easy Pieces, when he talks about DNA:

Attached to each sugar along the line, and linking the two chains together, are certain parts of cross-links. However, they are not all of the same kind; there are four kinds, called adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, but let us call them A, B, C, and D.

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Next comes the question, precisely how does the order of the A, B, C, D units determine the arrangement of the amino acids in the protein? This is the central unsolved problem in biology today.

Feynman taught his lectures during 1961-1963. Do we now know how does the order of adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine affect the order of the amino acids in the DNA?

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    $\begingroup$ I have found that starting with a relatively accessible and reliable source like Khan Academy is very helpful to learn about an unfamiliar area. Wikipedia is also generally a good starting point and you can then check their references. Online platforms called MOOCs offer free (or very low cost) courses on a wide variety of subjects — two I am familiar with are Coursera and edX. Finally, textbooks with a good level of detail are also freely available online e.g. from NCBI. $\endgroup$ – tyersome Nov 22 at 1:06
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Yes, it was solved in the early 1960s, starting about 1961. See Wikipedia's Genetic Code - History, and perhaps "Establishing the Triplet Nature of the Genetic Code".

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