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I'm unclear as to the molecular mechanism whereby mRNA is translated into proteins, but non-coding RNA is not similarly translated. How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?

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    $\begingroup$ mRNA translation requires multiple factors like polyadenylation, trasnport to cytosol, recognition by ribosomal machinery etc. You can read up on molecular details of these factors and in general you will find that these factors are absent on ncRNA. I will also suggest that you add some more information you find, and think is relevant to the question so that it is apparent that you have put effort to reach an answer. $\endgroup$ – Roni Saiba Nov 26 '20 at 6:28

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