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I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 by providing genetic material mRNA (which is encapsulated by lipid nanoparticle).

My question, which cells are subject to the vaccine particules (which factor determines the target cells?) Are produced spike proteins part of the cells (which interacted by the vaccine), or are these proteins emitted into the bloodstream like hormones so immune systems attack only the produced spike proteins?

I am asking this question to understand whether the cells which are used to create spike proteins are attacked by the immune system.

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I am asking this question to understand whether the cells which are used to create spike proteins are attacked by the immune system.

Yes, that is the aim of RNA vaccinations!

But don't worry, that's a good thing, as can be concluded from this review-paper, that emphasizes the advantage of RNA vaccinations to invoke cellular immune response:

Although subunit vaccines have been used successfully to elicit humoral immunity against a wide variety of pathogens, they fail to induce cellular immunity which is required to eradicate the intracellular pathogen reservoir of many chronic diseases, including viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.

Basically, the idea is that presented antigens from traditional vaccines are inclined to be presented via MHC2, rather causing humoral immunity, while after RNA transfection, cellularly produced peptides can also be presented on MHC1, causing cellular immunity.

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    $\begingroup$ Can someone explain why my comments got deleted? $\endgroup$ – albin Jan 31 at 21:53

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