For example, I have never get closed to a whale. The only source I have is research from who has get close to it. If I read their research and find a new thing, would my "discovery" be scientific? If yes, can you give some example of such research?
There is a related question in Philosophy SE: “Dinosaurs did exist once”. Is it knowledge or is it only justified belief? However this question is more about the knowledge directly produced by field researchers, while in this question I focus more on researchers who can only access secondary research. Plus that dinosaurs extincted, so in a sense I and a paleontologist are equal: neither of us can have direct experience to a living dinosaur. But whales are still living, and that equality is gone. So maybe the threshold for scientific research between a living organism and an extinct one is different?
See also: Is it possible to have a scientific review of a method if the author doesn't have direct experience of it?
Some may say this question is opinion-based. But there are good subjective questions as well.