T-cells are distinguished from B cells in part by their locus of differentiation/maturation (thymus). This is textbook knowledge, but I was wondering which particular person or people were responsible for making this discovery. I'd appreciate any links to their original papers/works. Thanks a lot!
This paper appears to be a history of the discovery of B/T differentiation and the role of the thymus. I believe that you should find a number of important references therein.
It describes specifically a series of publications in the 1950s and 1960s that may be relevant (section "Identification of T and B cells"), such as this one by Gowans.