The reason I ask this is due to the distinctive internal mantle shells of cirrina, of which the incerrata have stylets that are a remnant of the cirrate shell. Along with this, both cirrate octopuses and Vampyroteuthis have a gladius (although with different morphologies) with fins upon their mantles, which incirrate octopuses lack.

Also, a relatively recent study presents a view that cirrate octopuses are actually paraphyletic, being an evolutionary grade rather than a monophyletic group. Can it be inferred then that the basalmost octopus form is then a pelagic form with a gladius that uses mantle fins as the primary form of locomotion, and the incirrate form normally associated with octopuses is a drastic deviation?


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